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Nigeria is officially a democratic secular country.Nigeria has been home to a number of kingdoms and tribal states over the millennia.Nri was ruled by the Eze Nri, and the city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture.
The country is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by over 500 ethnic groups, of which the three largest are the Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba; these ethnic groups speak over 500 different languages and are identified with a wide variety of cultures. Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christians, who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslims, who live mostly in the north.
The origin of the name Niger, which originally applied only to the middle reaches of the Niger River, is uncertain.
The word is likely an alteration of the Tuareg name egerew Further north, the cities Kano and Katsina have a recorded history dating to around 999 AD.
Their dominance reached as far as the city of Eko (an Edo name later changed to Lagos by the Portuguese) and further.
At the beginning of the 19th century, Usman dan Fodio directed a successful jihad and created and led the centralised Fulani Empire (also known as the Sokoto Caliphate).